Soil and groundwater remediation
There are substantial costs associated with the assessment and remediation of historical soil and groundwater contamination. We periodically review contamination at our sites, taking remedial action when required, and have procedures to prevent new contamination.
In line with IFRS accounting rules, we make provisions for environmental remediation costs when it is probable that liability will materialize and the cost can be reasonably estimated. We have set aside €424 million, which we believe is sufficient for the sites where we have ownership or responsibility (see also and in the section).